Linux: Howto Make a Directory Command

How do I make directory under Linux operating systems using the command prompt or bash shell?

You need to use the mkdir command to create new folders or directories under Linux operating systems. A directory (also known as folder in MS-Windows/OS X) is nothing but a container for other directories and files.

mkdir command Syntax

The mkdir command has the following syntax:

mkdir dirname
mkdir dirname1 dirname2
mkdir [option] dieNameHere
mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3


Open a terminal and use the mkdir command to create empty directories. The following command would create a directory called foo:
$ mkdir foo
To list directories, enter:
$ ls
$ ls -l

The following command would create two directories within the current directory:
$ mkdir tom jerry
$ ls -l

The -p option allows you to create parent directories as needed (if parent do not already exits). For example, you can create the following directory structure:
$ mkdir -p ~/public_html/images/trip

Sample mkdir demo

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems

How To Use chmod and chown Command

How do I use chmod and chown command under Linux / Unix operating systems?
Use the chown command to change file owner and group information. Use the chmod command to change file access permissions such as read, write, and access.

chown command

chown command changes the user and/or group ownership of for given file. The syntax is:
chown owner-user file
chown owner-user:owner-group file
chown owner-user:owner-group directory
chown options owner-user:owner-group file


First, list permissions for demo.txt, enter:
# ls -l demo.txt
Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this example change file ownership to vivek user and list the permissions, run:
# chown vivek demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek root 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this next example, the owner is set to vivek followed by a colon and a group onwership is also set to vivek group, run:
# chown vivek:vivek demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek vivek 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this example, change only the group of file. To do so, the colon and following GROUP-name ftp are given, but the owner is omitted, only the group of the files is changed:
# chown :ftp demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek ftp 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
Please note that if only a colon is given, or if NEW-OWNER is empty, neither the owner nor the group is changed:
# chown : demo.txt
In this example, change the owner of /foo to “root”, execute:
# chown root /foo
Likewise, but also change its group to “httpd”, enter:
# chown root:httpd /foo
Change the owner of /foo and subfiles to “root”, run:
# chown -R root /u
  • -R – Recursively change ownership of directories and their contents.

chmod command

The information about the chmod command is covered in our previous tutorial – “how to use change user rights using chomod command“.

How to Reinstall apache2 properly in linux

If you have issues with apache2 and you want to reinstall it but you are getting errors,then here it isthe solution for you.
For example, me i had an issue with apache, when i tried to start it i got this error message  :
root[email protected]:/etc/apache2# /etc/init.d/apache2   start
.: 45: Can't open /etc/apache2/envvars
Now i want to reinstall apache, but first i need to remove it completely  (If you currently have it removed improperly, reinstall it by “sudo apt-get install apache2″ before to use the command bellow). To do that i will use this command :
 sudo apt-get remove --purge apache2 apache2-utils
This command will completely remove all apache2 configuration files and directories.
– Reinstall again apache using the normal command
sudo apt-get install apache2

Now your config files and directories in /etc/apache2 all be back and at their defaults as well as the “apache2-utils previously removed.

[email protected]:/etc/apache2# /etc/init.d/apache2   start
 * Starting web server apache2                                 
using for ServerName
httpd (pid 7235) already running   [ OK ]

Shell script that Prompts to Automatically Connect via SSH using .bash_profile in Cygwin

I wanted my cygwin terminal to automatically prompts me to login via SSH or to cancel and use local bash for whatever on my local machine. I found out the .bash_profile automatically runs on login so I made it call a external shell script with ./ to prompt for the two options of logging in by SSH or exiting the prompt and using cygwin’s local bash environment.

Here is the code for :

2 echo "Connect SSH?"
3 select yn in "Yes" "No"; do
4 case $yn in
5 Yes ) ssh [email protected]; break;;
6 No ) exit;;
7 esac
8 done

Then update your .bash_profile with the line 


Thats all you need to do.

How to Find a File in Ubuntu Linux

Use the following commands in your terminal

  • find / -iname filename or partial filename
    Find a File in Linux Step 1Bullet1.jpg
  • find / -iname *.conf

    Find a File in Linux Step 1Bullet2.jpg
  • This will find every instance conf no matter where it is.
  • The / after find tells find to look in every directory below and including the root of the filesystem.
  • The – in front of name tells Linux to not worry about caps.

You can use wildcards such as find / -iname wiki* to find, for example, “wikiHow.dat”.

Find a File in Linux Step 2.jpg
  • There are many variables you can use with find.

Type “man find” or “info find” at a terminal prompt for more information then you care to know. Skip the ” ” when entering the commands.

Find a File in Linux Step 3.jpg
  • If the list of files is extensive, you can pipe the command to “less” so you can scroll back for forth.
    • find / -iname *.conf | less
  • If you want to send the search results into a file to be read later
    • find / -iname *.conf > ~/myfile
The tilde ~ represents your home directory so if your user name is Joe you can find the filemyfile in /home/joe.
  • The locate command will often find files much faster, but it’s not always up to date.
    • locate important-paper
    • locate conf

Rename File Command Line Ubuntu Linux

You need to use the mv command. It is used to rename and move files and directories. The general syntax is as follows:
mv old-file-name new-file-name
mv [options] old-file-name new-file-name
mv file1 file2
In this example, the following command would rename a file called resumezzz.pdf to resume.pdf. Open a command-line terminal (select Applications > Accessories > Terminal), and then type:
mv resumezzz.pdf resume.pdf
If resumezzz.pdf is located in /home/vivek/docs/files directory, type:
cd /home/vivek/docs/files
mv resumezzz.pdf resume.pdf
mv /home/vivek/docs/files/resumezzz.pdf /home/vivek/docs/files/resume.pdf
Use the ls command to view files:
ls -l file1
ls -l file1 file2
ls -l /home/vivek/docs/files/*.pdf
ls -l *.pdf

Linux rename a file syntax

In short, to rename a file:
mv file1 file2
You can get verbose output i.e. mv command can explain what is being done using the following syntax:
mv -v file1 file2
Sample outputs:
`file1' -> `file2'
To make mv interactive pass the -i option. This option will prompt before overwriting file:
mv -i file1 file2
Sample outputs:
mv: overwrite `file2'? y

Detailed information about mv command

You can also view the manual page on mv using the following command:
man mv
info mv

How to setup transparent multi hop ssh

Being able to connect to remote server quickly and effortlessly is very useful while managing servers. Many times server you want to connect is behind firewall or inside other subnet and there’s no direct access to it. Here’s how you setup a transparent multi hop ssh.
First network topology. For this example Im connecting through network switch to my local server that act as firewall and DHCP. Behind that machine is my destination host

#1: Cofigure ~/.ssh/config

Firewall host is going to act as my gateway. Now that we know what we want to do lets configure our ~/.ssh/config file
Host firewall
    Port 22
    User root
Host destination
    port 22
    User root
    ProxyCommand ssh A firewall nc %h %p
This is how it works. Take a closer look at ProxyCommand inside destination host declaration. It runs ssh -A command to forward ssh-agent. After switch we relay to name of previously configured host named firewall and we run command netcat command (nc).

#2: Test multi hop ssh connection

To connect to destination server simply type in your terminal
ssh destination
ssh destination
Last login: Sun Sep  9 08:42:34 2012 from firewall
OpenBSD 5.1 (GENERIC) #160: Sun Feb 12 09:46:33 MST 2012
Connection to closed.
Killed by signal 1.
If you like me you probably want to get rid of that killed by signal message. It happens when netcat command exits. To silence that message you can add at the end of ProxyCommand 2>/dev/null
ProxyCommand ssh A firewall nc %h %p 2>/dev/null
Now when you exit you will see just connection closed message.
That was super transparent in an instant we logged on to our destination machine.
No related posts.

– See more at:

How to rename files in Linux Ubuntu

To rename files in Ubnutu it is very easy. Use the command for the desired filename name to be renamed.

mv desktop-login.ogg desktop-009.ogg
“mv” as in “move”, there’s no renaming tool as moving file has the same effect. Execute in the same directory where the files are, or use full paths:
mv /path/to/desktop-login.ogg /path/to/desktop-009.ogg

[Linux] Setting Up a Debian VNC Server (via SSH tunnel)

I. Abstract
No doubt, configuring a web server won’t work without being in the know of basics about the terminal, vim or nano. Anyway many tasks can also be performed by administrating a server using a GUI. The problem is: only Windows 2003 or Windows 2008 come with a preinstalled remote desktop connection – and they are really much more expensive than Linux solutions. When using our beloved and most stable Linux distributionDebian, it mostly comes preinstalled with almost nothing.
The following article assumes, you have a server, which can be managed via ssh rather than by physically access. We will show you how to setup a GNOME desktop on that server and virtually connect to that desktop using an SSH tunnel.
In case you are running a client machine with:
  • Linux or Mac OS X, just keep on reading, all tools come onboard
  • MS Windows, please install Cygwin with the openSSH package first
    (Note: you may also use the Putty/Pageant combo instead, but this will require some different steps. The following article is straightened to using Cygwin, because we feel it’s got several client sided advantages in contrast to Putty)
II. Preparations
First of all: log into your server via SSH as root. Make sure openSSH has been updated, a serious security flaw has been discovered some days ago concerning Debian based Linux distros. Make also sure you have secured your SSH access. We really recommend public-, private-key crypto for ssh login.
III. Update and Upgrade your server with current packages
Being logged into your server as root, do the following:
  • server$ apt-get update
  • server$ apt-get upgrade
  • server$ apt-get dist-upgrade
to upgade your whole installation.
IV. Installing GNOME
After having done a dist-upgrade we are used to reboot the servers. This might not be necessary in all cases and might be a strange obsession from ancient MS Windows times, but we would recommend it to allow all scripts to become initialized anew.
After reboot login as root again and do the following:
  • server$ apt-get install gnome-desktop-environment
V. Install fonts for GNOME and VNC
Install some (required) fonts for the VNC server GNOME session:
  • server$ apt-get install xfonts-100dpi
  • server$ apt-get install xfonts-100dpi-transcoded
  • server$ apt-get install xfonts-75dpi
  • server$ apt-get install xfonts-75dpi-transcoded
  • server$ apt-get install xfonts-base
VI. Install VNC server
We prefer TightVNCServer, simply because it worked from the very beginning…
  • server$ apt-get install tightvncserver
    (installs TightVNCServer)
  • server$ tightvncserver :1
    (initialize the VNC server for the first time, it will copy some files to ~/.vnc folder and it will ask twice for a VNC password – we recommend to provide it for your own safety)
  • server$ tightvncserver -kill :1
    (stop VNC server – for further configuration purposes)
VII. Configure VNC server
In this example we’re gonna use nano, you can also use vimvi or whatever you think what editor fits your needs best:
  • server$ nano ~/.vnc/xstartup
We need to change the standard X-Windows interface, since we like to use GNOME.
Original xstartup file:
  • #!/bin/shxrdb $HOME/.Xresources
    xsetroot -solid grey
    x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
    x-window-manager &
Change this to
  • #!/bin/shxrdb $HOME/.Xresources
    xsetroot -solid grey
    x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
    # x-window-manager &

    gnome-session &
Save and exit nano (ctrl + x).
VIII. Setup an SSH tunnel for VNC connections
VNC connections are usually to be found on port 5901. Usually they are not encrypted on that port. That means you send the VNC password unencrypted thru the net to that port. Since this allows too many attacks, it is just too weak for a web server solution.
We don’t want to provide possible Zombies. So the solution is: we just setup an SSH tunnel as a wrapper for our VNC connection. Further information about SSH tunneling can be found here and here.
On your client machine do the following:
In case you changed the ssh port on your server (like we recommended in our article here), you need to specify your ssh port for the SSH tunneling aswell, like:
  • client$ ssh -f -N -L 5901:localhost:5901 [email protected] -p 8722
    (in this case we use port 8722 instead of the standard port 22)
IX. Connect to your server via VNC
Start tightvnc on your server:
  • server$ tightvncserver :1
In case you like to have a different screen resolution than 1024×768 you may start tightvnc with:
  • server$ tightvncserver -geometry 1280x1024 :1
On a Mac the VNC client is called Chicken of the VNC (Download here). On Windows you can use RealVNC (Download here). Both work quite similar and contain almost the same features.
Use the VNC client (like Chicken of the VNC) to connect to your SSH tunnel,
  • connect to localhost (or
  • display 1, because of port 5901 (display 0 would be port 5900)
  • enter your VNC password
    (the password, that has been setup in step VI. Install VNC server)
  • hit connect and
  • you should see something like that (on vservers the performance may be kinda slow and GNOME’s GUI may take some time to initialize).
Congratulations, you’re done.
X. Stopping VNC session and SSH tunneling
You can simply quit the VNC session by just closing your VNC client. But the SSH tunnel from your client to your server will still be up until you stop it (means until you kill it). We may provide a simple script to do that when we finished cleaning it up. Right now it is kinda spaghetti code. Although this is not too comfy, you may live with a simple command until then:
  • client$ killall ssh
It simply kills every SSH process 🙂
XI. Final words
We hope you enjoyed our trip into the amazing VNC worlds on Debian and also hope you learned something. You could now setup a firewall like firestarter, which is GUI driven. We will publish some words about this in the early future.