Commands

Linux: Howto Make a Directory Command

How do I make directory under Linux operating systems using the command prompt or bash shell?

You need to use the mkdir command to create new folders or directories under Linux operating systems. A directory (also known as folder in MS-Windows/OS X) is nothing but a container for other directories and files.

mkdir command Syntax

The mkdir command has the following syntax:

mkdir dirname
OR
mkdir dirname1 dirname2
OR
mkdir [option] dieNameHere
OR
mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3

Examples

Open a terminal and use the mkdir command to create empty directories. The following command would create a directory called foo:
$ mkdir foo
To list directories, enter:
$ ls
$ ls -l

The following command would create two directories within the current directory:
$ mkdir tom jerry
$ ls -l

The -p option allows you to create parent directories as needed (if parent do not already exits). For example, you can create the following directory structure:
$ mkdir -p ~/public_html/images/trip

Sample mkdir demo

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems
SEE ALSO

How To Use chmod and chown Command

How do I use chmod and chown command under Linux / Unix operating systems?
Use the chown command to change file owner and group information. Use the chmod command to change file access permissions such as read, write, and access.

chown command

chown command changes the user and/or group ownership of for given file. The syntax is:
 
chown owner-user file
chown owner-user:owner-group file
chown owner-user:owner-group directory
chown options owner-user:owner-group file
 

Examples

First, list permissions for demo.txt, enter:
# ls -l demo.txt
Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this example change file ownership to vivek user and list the permissions, run:
# chown vivek demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek root 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this next example, the owner is set to vivek followed by a colon and a group onwership is also set to vivek group, run:
# chown vivek:vivek demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek vivek 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
In this example, change only the group of file. To do so, the colon and following GROUP-name ftp are given, but the owner is omitted, only the group of the files is changed:
# chown :ftp demo.txt
# ls -l demo.txt

Sample outputs:
-rw-r--r-- 1 vivek ftp 0 Aug 31 05:48 demo.txt
Please note that if only a colon is given, or if NEW-OWNER is empty, neither the owner nor the group is changed:
# chown : demo.txt
In this example, change the owner of /foo to “root”, execute:
# chown root /foo
Likewise, but also change its group to “httpd”, enter:
# chown root:httpd /foo
Change the owner of /foo and subfiles to “root”, run:
# chown -R root /u
Where,
  • -R – Recursively change ownership of directories and their contents.

chmod command

The information about the chmod command is covered in our previous tutorial – “how to use change user rights using chomod command“.

Shell script that Prompts to Automatically Connect via SSH using .bash_profile in Cygwin

I wanted my cygwin terminal to automatically prompts me to login via SSH or to cancel and use local bash for whatever on my local machine. I found out the .bash_profile automatically runs on login so I made it call a external shell script with ./ssh_connect.sh to prompt for the two options of logging in by SSH or exiting the prompt and using cygwin’s local bash environment.

Here is the code for ssh_connect.sh :

   1 
2 echo "Connect SSH?"
3 select yn in "Yes" "No"; do
4 case $yn in
5 Yes ) ssh [email protected]; break;;
6 No ) exit;;
7 esac
8 done
9

Then update your .bash_profile with the line 

./ssh_connect.sh

Thats all you need to do.


How to Find a File in Ubuntu Linux

Use the following commands in your terminal

  • find / -iname filename or partial filename
    Find a File in Linux Step 1Bullet1.jpg
  • find / -iname *.conf

    Find a File in Linux Step 1Bullet2.jpg
  • This will find every instance conf no matter where it is.
  • The / after find tells find to look in every directory below and including the root of the filesystem.
  • The – in front of name tells Linux to not worry about caps.

You can use wildcards such as find / -iname wiki* to find, for example, “wikiHow.dat”.

Find a File in Linux Step 2.jpg
  • There are many variables you can use with find.

Type “man find” or “info find” at a terminal prompt for more information then you care to know. Skip the ” ” when entering the commands.

Find a File in Linux Step 3.jpg
Tips
  • If the list of files is extensive, you can pipe the command to “less” so you can scroll back for forth.
    • find / -iname *.conf | less
  • If you want to send the search results into a file to be read later
    • find / -iname *.conf > ~/myfile
The tilde ~ represents your home directory so if your user name is Joe you can find the filemyfile in /home/joe.
  • The locate command will often find files much faster, but it’s not always up to date.
    • locate important-paper
    • locate conf

Rename File Command Line Ubuntu Linux

You need to use the mv command. It is used to rename and move files and directories. The general syntax is as follows:
 
mv old-file-name new-file-name
mv [options] old-file-name new-file-name
mv file1 file2
 
In this example, the following command would rename a file called resumezzz.pdf to resume.pdf. Open a command-line terminal (select Applications > Accessories > Terminal), and then type:
 
mv resumezzz.pdf resume.pdf
 
If resumezzz.pdf is located in /home/vivek/docs/files directory, type:
 
cd /home/vivek/docs/files
mv resumezzz.pdf resume.pdf
 
OR
 
mv /home/vivek/docs/files/resumezzz.pdf /home/vivek/docs/files/resume.pdf
 
Use the ls command to view files:
 
ls -l file1
ls -l file1 file2
ls -l /home/vivek/docs/files/*.pdf
ls -l *.pdf
 

Linux rename a file syntax

In short, to rename a file:
 
mv file1 file2
 
You can get verbose output i.e. mv command can explain what is being done using the following syntax:
 
mv -v file1 file2
 
Sample outputs:
`file1' -> `file2'
To make mv interactive pass the -i option. This option will prompt before overwriting file:
 
mv -i file1 file2
 
Sample outputs:
mv: overwrite `file2'? y

Detailed information about mv command

You can also view the manual page on mv using the following command:
 
man mv
 
OR
 
info mv
 

How to rename files in Linux Ubuntu

To rename files in Ubnutu it is very easy. Use the command for the desired filename name to be renamed.

mv desktop-login.ogg desktop-009.ogg
“mv” as in “move”, there’s no renaming tool as moving file has the same effect. Execute in the same directory where the files are, or use full paths:
mv /path/to/desktop-login.ogg /path/to/desktop-009.ogg